RSAT - variation-scan

Scan sequences bearing variants with a list of motifs to predict which motifs may be affected by the variant.

Conceptionc, implementationi and testingt:
Jacques van Heldencit , Alejandra Medina-Riveracit , Walter Santanacit , Jeremy Delerceci


Matrix collections

A set conformed by different motifs representing binding profiles for several transcription factors will be used to scan the variants. Provide your own motifs collection or select one to be used.

Input personal collection of motifs        Format 
Input motifs as text


Upload motifs file


Or Dynamic selection of motifs from the available collections
(select the collection and a dropdown menu will appear to select motifs)


View matrix descriptions & download full collections

Vertebrates

ENCODE (Human TFs) - [2065 motifs] (2018-03) - [local copy]
HT-Methyl-Selex (Human TFs) - [923 motifs] (2018-03) - [local copy]
HT-Selex (Human TFs) - [864 motifs] (2018-03) - [local copy]
Hocomoco (Human TFs) - [771 motifs] (2017-10) - [local copy]
Hocomoco (Mouse TFs) - [531 motifs] (2017-10) - [local copy]
Homer (Human TF motifs) - [332 motifs] (2016-07) - [local copy]
Jolma_2013 (Human TFs) - [818 motifs] (2015-11) - [local copy]
Human_TF_dimers (Human TFs dimers) - [664 motifs] (2016-05) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs A549 (Human TFs) - [21 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs GM12878 (Human TFs) - [60 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs H1-hESC (Human TFs) - [35 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs HCT116 (Human TFs) - [16 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs HEK293 (Human TFs) - [88 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs HEK293T (Human TFs) - [9 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs HeLa-S3 (Human TFs) - [31 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs HepG2 (Human TFs) - [66 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs IMR-90 (Human TFs) - [11 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs K562 (Human TFs) - [108 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs MCF-7 (Human TFs) - [52 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs SK-N-SH (Human TFs) - [21 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs SNU398 (Human TFs) - [1 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
NCAP-SELEX (HUMAN TFs) - [0 motifs] (2018-09) - [local copy]
RSAT non-redundant vertebrates - [2233 motifs] (2017) - [local copy]
cisBP Ailuropoda_melanoleuca - [5863 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Anas_platyrhynchos - [5038 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Astyanax_mexicanus - [5191 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Bos_taurus - [5895 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Callithrix_jacchus - [6089 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Cavia_porcellus - [5683 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Chlorocebus_sabaeus - [6176 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Choloepus_hoffmanni - [4069 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Danio_rerio - [0 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Dasypus_novemcinctus - [5871 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Dipodomys_ordii - [4810 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Echinops_telfairi - [4813 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Equus_caballus - [5765 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Erinaceus_europaeus - [4783 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Gallus_gallus - [5272 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Homo_sapiens - [6607 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Mus_musculus - [6014 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Oreochromis_niloticus - [5296 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Rattus_norvegicus - [5946 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Xenopus_tropicalis - [5393 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP human - [1832 motifs] (2014-10_v0.9) - [local copy]
cisBP mouse - [1715 motifs] (2014-10_v0.9) - [local copy]
Epigram (Human Histone marks related motifs) - [589 motifs] (2016-06) - [local copy]
hPDI (Human TFs identified by protein microarray assays) - [437 motifs] (2016-06) - [local copy]
JASPAR core nonredundant vertebrates - [579 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]
JASPAR core redundant vertebrates - [719 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]

Non-vertebrate Metazoa

Drosophila DMMPMM - [41 motifs] (2010_11) - [local copy]
DrosophilaTFs - [61 motifs] (2015-11) - [local copy]
Database of Drosophila DNA-binding specificities (FlyFactorSurvey) - [652 motifs] (2016_06) - [local copy]
Drosophila IDMMPMM - [39 motifs] (2010_11) - [local copy]
RSAT non-redundant insects - [350 motifs] (2017) - [local copy]
cisBP Acyrthosiphon_pisum - [4022 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Aedes_aegypti - [3985 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Amphimedon_queenslandica - [2325 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Anopheles_darlingi - [3542 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Anopheles_gambiae - [4089 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Apis_mellifera - [4133 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Atta_cephalotes - [3404 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Bombyx_mori - [0 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Brugia_malayi - [0 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP c_elegans - [1499 motifs] (2015-05_v1.02) - [local copy]
cisBP Caenorhabditis_brenneri - [3169 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Caenorhabditis_briggsae - [3261 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Caenorhabditis_elegans - [3438 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Caenorhabditis_japonica - [3107 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Caenorhabditis_remanei - [3289 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Ciona_intestinalis - [3788 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Crassostrea_gigas - [4030 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Culex_quinquefasciatus - [3982 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Danaus_plexippus - [3886 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Daphnia_pulex - [0 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Dendroctonus_ponderosae - [3846 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_ananassae - [4154 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_erecta - [4347 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_grimshawi - [4226 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_melanogaster - [4514 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_mojavensis - [4293 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_persimilis - [4161 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_pseudoobscura - [4286 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_sechellia - [4352 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_simulans - [4023 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_virilis - [4276 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_willistoni - [4319 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_yakuba - [4326 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Heliconius_melpomene - [3647 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Helobdella_robusta - [3660 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Ixodes_scapularis - [3701 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Lottia_gigantea - [3989 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Lucilia_cuprina - [3942 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Megaselia_scalaris - [2683 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Melitaea_cinxia - [3363 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Nasonia_vitripennis - [4064 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Nematostella_vectensis - [3571 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Octopus_bimaculoides - [3795 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Onchocerca_volvulus - [2988 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Pediculus_humanus - [4057 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Pristionchus_pacificus - [2683 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Rhodnius_prolixus - [3380 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Schistosoma_mansoni - [3181 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Solenopsis_invicta - [3658 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Strigamia_maritima - [3791 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Strongylocentrotus_purpuratus - [3989 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Tetranychus_urticae - [3909 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Tribolium_castaneum - [4101 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Trichinella_spiralis - [3131 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Trichoplax_adhaerens - [2901 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Zootermopsis_nevadensis - [3945 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP drosophila - [1427 motifs] (2014-10_v0.9) - [local copy]
footprintDB-metazoa [only metazoa DNA motifs] - [7086 motifs] (2019-07) - [local copy]
JASPAR core nonredundant insects - [133 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]
JASPAR core nonredundant nematodes - [26 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]
JASPAR core nonredundant urochordates - [1 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]
JASPAR core redundant insects - [140 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]
JASPAR core redundant nematodes - [26 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]
JASPAR core redundant urochordates - [1 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]

Multi-organisms

RSAT non-redundant insects+plants+vertebrates - [2889 motifs] (2017) - [local copy]
footprintDB all - [11145 motifs] (2019-07) - [local copy]
JASPAR core nonredundant all - [1404 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]
JASPAR core redundant all - [1564 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]

RNA binding

ATtRACT - [1322 motifs] (2017) - [local copy]
CISBP-RNA - [11897 motifs] (2017) - [local copy]
RBPDB - [71 motifs] (2017) - [local copy]

Select one motif collection


View matrix descriptions & download full collections

Vertebrates

ENCODE (Human TFs) - [2065 motifs] (2018-03) - [local copy]
HT-Methyl-Selex (Human TFs) - [923 motifs] (2018-03) - [local copy]
HT-Selex (Human TFs) - [864 motifs] (2018-03) - [local copy]
Hocomoco (Human TFs) - [771 motifs] (2017-10) - [local copy]
Hocomoco (Mouse TFs) - [531 motifs] (2017-10) - [local copy]
Homer (Human TF motifs) - [332 motifs] (2016-07) - [local copy]
Jolma_2013 (Human TFs) - [818 motifs] (2015-11) - [local copy]
Human_TF_dimers (Human TFs dimers) - [664 motifs] (2016-05) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs A549 (Human TFs) - [21 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs GM12878 (Human TFs) - [60 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs H1-hESC (Human TFs) - [35 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs HCT116 (Human TFs) - [16 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs HEK293 (Human TFs) - [88 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs HEK293T (Human TFs) - [9 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs HeLa-S3 (Human TFs) - [31 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs HepG2 (Human TFs) - [66 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs IMR-90 (Human TFs) - [11 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs K562 (Human TFs) - [108 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs MCF-7 (Human TFs) - [52 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs SK-N-SH (Human TFs) - [21 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
Methylated motifs SNU398 (Human TFs) - [1 motifs] (2018-11) - [local copy]
NCAP-SELEX (HUMAN TFs) - [0 motifs] (2018-09) - [local copy]
RSAT non-redundant vertebrates - [2233 motifs] (2017) - [local copy]
cisBP Ailuropoda_melanoleuca - [5863 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Anas_platyrhynchos - [5038 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Astyanax_mexicanus - [5191 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Bos_taurus - [5895 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Callithrix_jacchus - [6089 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Cavia_porcellus - [5683 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Chlorocebus_sabaeus - [6176 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Choloepus_hoffmanni - [4069 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Danio_rerio - [0 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Dasypus_novemcinctus - [5871 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Dipodomys_ordii - [4810 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Echinops_telfairi - [4813 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Equus_caballus - [5765 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Erinaceus_europaeus - [4783 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Gallus_gallus - [5272 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Homo_sapiens - [6607 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Mus_musculus - [6014 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Oreochromis_niloticus - [5296 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Rattus_norvegicus - [5946 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Xenopus_tropicalis - [5393 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP human - [1832 motifs] (2014-10_v0.9) - [local copy]
cisBP mouse - [1715 motifs] (2014-10_v0.9) - [local copy]
Epigram (Human Histone marks related motifs) - [589 motifs] (2016-06) - [local copy]
hPDI (Human TFs identified by protein microarray assays) - [437 motifs] (2016-06) - [local copy]
JASPAR core nonredundant vertebrates - [579 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]
JASPAR core redundant vertebrates - [719 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]

Non-vertebrate Metazoa

Drosophila DMMPMM - [41 motifs] (2010_11) - [local copy]
DrosophilaTFs - [61 motifs] (2015-11) - [local copy]
Database of Drosophila DNA-binding specificities (FlyFactorSurvey) - [652 motifs] (2016_06) - [local copy]
Drosophila IDMMPMM - [39 motifs] (2010_11) - [local copy]
RSAT non-redundant insects - [350 motifs] (2017) - [local copy]
cisBP Acyrthosiphon_pisum - [4022 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Aedes_aegypti - [3985 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Amphimedon_queenslandica - [2325 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Anopheles_darlingi - [3542 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Anopheles_gambiae - [4089 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Apis_mellifera - [4133 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Atta_cephalotes - [3404 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Bombyx_mori - [0 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Brugia_malayi - [0 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP c_elegans - [1499 motifs] (2015-05_v1.02) - [local copy]
cisBP Caenorhabditis_brenneri - [3169 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Caenorhabditis_briggsae - [3261 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Caenorhabditis_elegans - [3438 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Caenorhabditis_japonica - [3107 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Caenorhabditis_remanei - [3289 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Ciona_intestinalis - [3788 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Crassostrea_gigas - [4030 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Culex_quinquefasciatus - [3982 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Danaus_plexippus - [3886 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Daphnia_pulex - [0 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Dendroctonus_ponderosae - [3846 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_ananassae - [4154 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_erecta - [4347 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_grimshawi - [4226 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_melanogaster - [4514 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_mojavensis - [4293 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_persimilis - [4161 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_pseudoobscura - [4286 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_sechellia - [4352 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_simulans - [4023 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_virilis - [4276 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_willistoni - [4319 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Drosophila_yakuba - [4326 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Heliconius_melpomene - [3647 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Helobdella_robusta - [3660 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Ixodes_scapularis - [3701 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Lottia_gigantea - [3989 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Lucilia_cuprina - [3942 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Megaselia_scalaris - [2683 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Melitaea_cinxia - [3363 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Nasonia_vitripennis - [4064 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Nematostella_vectensis - [3571 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Octopus_bimaculoides - [3795 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Onchocerca_volvulus - [2988 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Pediculus_humanus - [4057 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Pristionchus_pacificus - [2683 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Rhodnius_prolixus - [3380 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Schistosoma_mansoni - [3181 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Solenopsis_invicta - [3658 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Strigamia_maritima - [3791 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Strongylocentrotus_purpuratus - [3989 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Tetranychus_urticae - [3909 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Tribolium_castaneum - [4101 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Trichinella_spiralis - [3131 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Trichoplax_adhaerens - [2901 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP Zootermopsis_nevadensis - [3945 motifs] (2019-06_v2.00) - [local copy]
cisBP drosophila - [1427 motifs] (2014-10_v0.9) - [local copy]
footprintDB-metazoa [only metazoa DNA motifs] - [7086 motifs] (2019-07) - [local copy]
JASPAR core nonredundant insects - [133 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]
JASPAR core nonredundant nematodes - [26 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]
JASPAR core nonredundant urochordates - [1 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]
JASPAR core redundant insects - [140 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]
JASPAR core redundant nematodes - [26 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]
JASPAR core redundant urochordates - [1 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]

Multi-organisms

RSAT non-redundant insects+plants+vertebrates - [2889 motifs] (2017) - [local copy]
footprintDB all - [11145 motifs] (2019-07) - [local copy]
JASPAR core nonredundant all - [1404 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]
JASPAR core redundant all - [1564 motifs] (2018) - [local copy]

RNA binding

ATtRACT - [1322 motifs] (2017) - [local copy]
CISBP-RNA - [11897 motifs] (2017) - [local copy]
RBPDB - [71 motifs] (2017) - [local copy]

Background

Background model estimation method

Scanning Parameters Length of sequence around the variant 
Thresholds
Field Lower
Threshold
Upper
Threshold
Weight of predicted sites
Weight difference between variants
P-value of predicted sites
P-value ratio between variants

Output  



AMR and WS are supported by a PAPIIT-UNAM (IA206517) grant.